Impact of Benazir Income Support Program (BISP)

Amidst the complexity of poverty alleviation efforts, the Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) has emerged as Pakistan’s flagship social protection initiative. Spanning 149 districts, this poverty-targeted cash transfer program provides a regular stipend to over five million families, aiming to uplift the most vulnerable households. By directing the quarterly transfer to the female head of the family, the BISP seeks to mitigate the repercussions of escalating food prices and unforeseen expenses on impoverished communities.

Complementary Programs and Conditional Cash Transfers

The BISP not only encompasses unconditional cash transfers but also incorporates a range of complementary initiatives. Among these, the Waseela-e-Taleem (WET) program stands out as the largest conditional cash transfer scheme aimed at supporting primary education. By providing an additional quarterly transfer, the WET program facilitates access to education for underprivileged children.

A Holistic Evaluation Approach

To comprehensively assess the BISP’s performance and impact, an intricate evaluation has been initiated. Guided by a clearly defined theory of change, this evaluation utilizes a mixed-methods approach. It delves into the program’s influence on various human and development indicators, such as poverty, education, livelihoods, women’s empowerment, health, and child nutrition. Additionally, the evaluation examines the effects of the WET program, thus providing a holistic understanding of the BISP’s multifaceted impact.


The core of this evaluation relies on a nationally representative household survey encompassing over nine thousand households across Pakistan. This robust dataset serves as the foundation for both quantitative analysis and extensive qualitative research, offering comprehensive insights into the program’s effectiveness and reach.

Revealing Outcomes and Implications

The evaluation of the BISP yields vital information regarding its impact and performance throughout its five-year implementation span, from inception to the present. These findings play a pivotal role in ensuring accountability to the program’s funders while informing the design of future phases and complementary initiatives.

Remarkable Achievements and Policy Relevance

Through meticulous analysis, the evaluation showcases consistent progress in achieving the program’s poverty reduction targets, with poverty rates witnessing a seven-percentage-point decline. Moreover, the BISP demonstrates impressive advancements in women’s empowerment and the promotion of universal primary education in Pakistan.

The significance of these findings extends beyond the program itself, contributing to ongoing national policy debates surrounding social protection. They also bolster the evidence base for social protection initiatives, both domestically and internationally, strengthening the case for similar interventions across the globe.


The Benazir Income Support Program (BISP) stands as a complex and multifaceted endeavour aimed at uplifting the poorest households in Pakistan. Through its cash transfer mechanisms and complementary programs, it addresses pressing issues of poverty, education, women’s empowerment, and overall human development. The ongoing evaluation of the BISP provides critical insights into its performance, impact, and potential areas for improvement. As Pakistan continues its journey towards inclusive socioeconomic development, the BISP serves as a guiding light, fostering hope and resilience within the most vulnerable communities.

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